When you think about dandruff, what words come to mind?
Flakey. Itchy. Gross. Dirty. What else?

Did you know that 1 out of 5 of people have dandruff all the time and at least 50% of us have had dandruff before? When these dreaded white flakes make their appearance, our self-esteem looks like it's flaking away too. Managing dandruff is easy if we know the root cause and some basic facts.

Before we get into the different types of dandruff we have, let’s start with the causes.

Do you know what Body Cellular TurnOver or Skin Renewal Rate is? If you got burnt or have a wound, your skin will renew itself. After a few weeks, new skin will replace the old. The skin renewal rate of a normal human being is 28 days. As the skin layers continuously replace themselves, cells are pushed outward where they die and flake off. For most individuals, these flakes of skin are too small to be visible. However, certain conditions cause cell turnover to be unusually rapid, especially in the scalp.

It is hypothesized that for people with dandruff, skin cells may mature and shed in 1–5 days, which is so much faster than those without. The result is that dead skin cells are shed in large, oily clumps, which appear as white or greyish flakes on the scalp, skin and clothes.

Hence, dandruff is really your skin cells magnified into a visible skin flake which you can see.


What is the trigger for this? What made my skin cells produce so rapidly fast?

  1. Malassezia: One of the main culprits is Malassezia (mea – la – sir – zai – ya). It is a yeast, a fungi found on the skin of 7 billion humans and associated with a variety of conditions, including dandruff, atopic eczema, dermatitis and many more. Humans who are born with Malassezia will be susceptible to dandruff.


For most of us, this type of fungus is a harmless part of the scalp and it feeds on the sebum on the skin. However, given the right conditions, fungus can over grow and cause an inflammatory response that leads to a build-up of skin cells that then flake off like dandruff. 

  1. A common factor is seborrhoeic dermatitis. Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a common, benign skin problem which can affect infants to adults. It often appears as a red, swollen, greasy rash that may have white or yellow flakes or crust. Seborrhoeic dermatitis can also affect areas such as the face, ears, groin, chest and back.

Together with the proliferation of Malessezia (mea – la – sir – zai – ya), it is a lethal combination of severe irritation and dandruff which never seems to end. Both of them feed off each other.

Malessezia needs fat to proliferate and Seborrhoeric dermatitis love fungi.

The best way to treat your dandruff—whatever the cause—is to first know what you’re really dealing with.


Do you know you can suffer from 3 types of Dandruff – Dry, Oily & Severe? How do you recognise which one you have and what is the best treatment for it? Many people chose the treatment based on smell, but this method is not accurate.

  • Dry Dandruff:  this is how it looks like under the microscope.


What you see is many tiny small dots that fall off easily, so much so it looks like snow on your shoulders. This condition is linked to dry scalp. To treat dry dandruff, you need the right product which has the right balance of moisture, anti-bacteria purification and exfoliation.

Phytosquam Anti-Dandruff Moisturising Shampoo does just that! It balances your scalp and removes loose dandruff flakes while providing optimal hydration and beautiful shine to hair. This is a gentle, scalp-exfoliating shampoo that you can use daily.

  • Oily Dandruff: this is how it looks like under the microscope. 

Some people have a bad habit of peeling off these big flakes. It is best to  refrain from doing that as the flakes will just grow back again and this time, even faster. In the midst of peeling these flakes, you may infect your scalp or even pull out your hair.

Instead, use Phytosquam Purifying Anti-Dandruff Shampoo. This antiseptic shampoo has the natural powers of lemon oil, pine bark, geranium, rosemary and sage to purify and regulate the scalp. Recommended for those prone to an oily scalp, it prevents the spread of excess sebum while providing ultra-oil absorbing benefits. deep cleaning and anti-fungal benefits. Hair is cleaner, fresher & fuller!

  • Severe Dandruff: This is an extension of the Oily Dandruff, but worse. This is an extreme case of seborrhoeic dermatitis and you have big flaky dandruff over 50% to 100% of your scalp. Remember! As much as you are tempted, do not remove the flakes by your fingers. Harsh or improper removal of scales can be painful and cause bleeding and open to infection.

Those who have this condition, will be in immense discomfort and experience constant itching and flaking. You feel and look terrible and everyone thinks you have not showered for weeks. 

It is recommended that you use Phytosquam Intense Anti Dandruff Treatment Shampoo! Formulated with an innovative botanical complex [Black pepper + Guyana wood], this shampoo purifies and exfoliates the scalp, and provides anti-fungal and anti-bacterial benefits. It also eliminates and prevents the recurrence of dandruff and relieves irritation and itchiness.

These are some of the other triggers for dandruff:

  • Stress

  • Insufficient Rest & Sleep

  • Hormonal Changes

  • Sensitivity to harsh hair care products (contact dermatitis)

  • Insufficient Washing

  • Certain Illness increase the risk of dandruff 

When these happen, you know you do not have to worry as you are prepared to win the battle with Phytosquam range!